Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference


The Native North Americans of the Southwest—particularly the Pueblo peoples and most especially the Hopi—have spirit figures called kachinas (katsinas). These are individualized figures depicted in small doll form for religious educational (and touristic) purposes, and they are also impersonated by masked adult males in important dance ceremonies. The Hopi kachinas are said to come from their home in the San Francisco Peaks, above Flagstaff, Arizona, to visit the Indian villages for these ceremonies.

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