Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference

Modoc Indians

tribe of southwest Oregon and northern California. In 1864 the Modoc and the Klamath ceded their territory to the U.S., removing to the Klamath reservation in Oregon. In 1870 a chief known as Captain Jack led a part of the tribe back to the California border, and in the subsequent Modoc War (1872–73) two peace commissioners were killed. After the Indians were overcome and their leaders hanged, the tribe was divided, part being sent to Oklahoma and the rest to the Klamath reservation. Joaquin Miller wrote a colorful but romantically imaginative account supposed to tell of his Life Amongst the Modocs (1873).

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