Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.
Plains Indians wars
The Kiowa rebelled again in May 1871. Satanta and other leaders were captured and condemned to death, but their sentences were commuted—unwisely, because they led the Kiowa war faction to join the Comanche again in the ‘Red River war’ of 1874, which tore up the Texas panhandle. After defeats at Adobe Walls and Palo Duro Canyon, Satanta surrendered to Miles in October. Sporadic raiding continued, but the southern Plains Indians wars are considered to have ended when the feared half-breed Comanche Quanah Parker surrendered in June 1875.