Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

American National Biography

James Abram Garfield

Garfield, James Abram (19 Nov. 1831-19 Sept. 1881), twentieth president of the United States, was born in Orange township (now Moreland Hills) in the Western Reserve region of northern Ohio, the son of Abram Garfield and Eliza Ballou, farmers. After his father's death in 1833, James was brought up amid rural poverty by his strong-willed mother. The hardships of those early years would later provide grist for campaign biographers, including Horatio Alger, who transformed Garfield's log-cabin birth and his brief stint as a canal boy into political legend.

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