Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Handbooks Online

Melting Pots, Salad Bowls

Ethnic Museums, and American Identity

The experience of slavery is also at the center of the Old Slave Mart Museum in Charleston. In 2010, a new exhibit in Philadelphia brought the fact of slavery to Independence National Historical Park. After excavations revealed where the original Executive Mansion had been located, the new exhibit highlights the slaves George Washington brought with him to Philadelphia while he served as the nation’s first president. Located just yards from the Liberty Bell, the “President’s House” juxtaposes the two central facts of the nation’s founding: freedom and slavery.

Learn More →