Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.
Military stronghold in Charleston harbour, USA. The Confederates, having seized Federal funds and property in the South, demanded the evacuation of the Federal Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Major Robert Anderson, in command, refused and General Beauregard bombarded it (12–13 April 1861) just as relief for the Federalists approached. The fall of the fort marked the beginning of the American Civil War.