Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference

Menéndez de Avilés, Pedro

Fort Caroline was a French fort and colony at the mouth of what is now the St Johns river (near Jacksonville). On the same day that Avilés arrived in St Augustine (28 August), a French force of some 300 men under the command of the Huguenot Jean Ribaut arrived to reinforce the garrison. On 20 September Avilés attacked the fort, killed his prisoners, and gibbeted the bodies of the dead with the inscription ‘no por franceses sino por herejes’ (‘not as Frenchmen but as heretics’, i.e. Protestants).

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