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Oxford Reference

Effigy Mound Culture

Localized grouping of middle Woodland Stage communities in the upper Mississippi area west of Lake Michigan in Wisconsin and the midwest of North America during the early 1st millennium ad. Characterized by the construction of low monumental burial mounds. These mounds were often set out in the shape of animals (mainly birds) and the burials were placed in significant positions such as at the head, heart, or hips of the symbolic creature.

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