Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference

Devils Tower, Mato Tipi, or Bear's Lodge (Wyoming)

President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed that Wyoming's Devils Tower was “such an extraordinary example of the effect of erosion in the higher mountains as to be a natural wonder and an object of historic and great scientific interest.” In declaring Devils Tower the first national monument under the Antiquities Act, Roosevelt equated scenic beauty, scientific import and a significantly storied past as harmonious rationales for its preservation. In subsequent decades these rationales have also given rise to conflicting cultural, religious, and legal efforts to mark both the monument's meaning and the kinds of human practice appropriate there.

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