Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference

Monuments, Museums, Public Markers

Sometimes the runaways were reenslaved or sold back to the British, but often the Spanish allowed them to live in freedom and participate in the black militia that helped defend Castillo de San Marcos and Saint Augustine. In 1738 the Spanish encouraged African Americans to build Fort Mosé, two miles north of Castillo de San Marcos, as a self-governing Maroon colony and a first line of defense for Saint Augustine. When the Spaniards departed Florida for Cuba, most blacks (and Native Americans) evacuated with them. The Castillo, a National Park Service site, included an exhibit on Fort Mosé, and guides there have told of the lives of free blacks under Spanish rule.

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