Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.
Leadership in Mixed-sex Groupsof muskoxen during the snow-free season
We conducted research on approximately 160 muskoxen at Cape Krusenstern National Monument adjacent to the coast of the Chuckchi Sea in northwestern Alaska. We observed free-ranging, mixed-sex groups of muskoxen from the ground during 5 June–22 September 2002. Adult females emerged as leaders in all 3 contexts, and other group members were more likely to follow adult females than adult males during initiations of activity.