Go deeper into the history of each park with scholarly articles and essays from Oxford University Press, freely available for the centennial year.

Oxford Reference

Hopie Indians

The Hopi Indians clashed with the US government as the government tried to "Americanize" them, especially by forcing their children to attend non-Indian schools far away from their homes. On November 25, 1894, 19 Hopi Indians were arrested and taken to Alcatraz where they spent nearly a year.

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OUP Books

Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power

Sherry L. Smith

Through much of the 20th century, federal policy toward Indians sought to extinguish all remnants of native life and culture. That policy was dramatically confronted in the late 1960s when a loose coalition of hippies, civil rights advocates, Black Panthers, unions, Mexican-Americans, Quakers and other Christians, celebrities, and others joined with Red Power activists to fight for Indian rights.

Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power
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